"Think Tanks" bipartisans & lobbies :
acteurs, idéologie et structure du néolibéralisme mondial

Qu'est-ce que le Lobbying ? Définition du Sénat US

» Lobbying is the practice of trying to persuade legislators to propose, pass, or defeat legislation or to change existing laws. A lobbyist may work for a group, organization, or industry, and presents information on legislative proposals to support his or her clients' interests. »
The Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 establishes criteria for determining when an organization or firm should register their employees as lobbyists. Lobbyists register with the Senate Office of Public Records.

Une histoire du lobbying Chapter
1: Introduction Chapter
2: "Lobbyists" September 28, 1987 (updated 1989)

Lobbying Disclosure ACT

--Weekly Column--


Lieberman Advocates Strong Lobbying Reform
March 7, 2006 HSGAC (Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee) and Rules Committee Bills Would Impose Near Ban on Gifts

Lobbying Congress
An Overview of Legal Provisions and ...
... Order Code RL31126 Lobbying Congress : An Overview of Legal Provisions and Congressional Ethics Rules ... Page 2.
Lobbying Congress: An Overview of Legal Provisions ...

Comprehensive Lobbying and Ethics Reform
March 6, 2006 - Senate Republicans are committed to upholding the highest standards of integrity and accountability to the American people through a comprehensive lobbying and ethics reform package.

Mediatransparency (20/1/05)
Faith and Fabrications by Bill Berkowitz
James Kennedy's Christian Crusade by Bill Berkowitz
Air Jesus by Max Blumenthal
Bush, God and the Media by David Domke
Cash and Carry, Bush, Blacks and the faith-based initiative by Bill Berkowitz
Sponsoring Conservative Minorities by NCRP
Arthur Finkelstein is hunting Hillary Clinton by Bill Berkowitz
The kids are all Right, Collegiate Network turns 25
Neocon Agenda: Iran, China, Russia, Latin America... by Jim Lobe
Think Again: 'Ideas Have Consequences: So Does Money' by E.Alterman, P. McLeary
Moonies knee-deep in faith-based funds pushing celibacy, marriage counseling under Bush plan by Don Lattin
David Horowitz's Campus Jihads by Bill Berkowitz
The conservative cabal that's transforming american law by Jerry M.Landay
Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Studies
Roadmap to the "Ideal" Society
Citizens for a Sound Economy [Foundation]
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation by Phil Wilayto
Yale University
Conservative Movement Moves In

Energy Security is American Security
Senator J. F. Kerry by Himself : "...wind, solar, biomass after old BP, IBM, Digital Corporation, Chevron, Shell, american ingenuity can again Lead the World and reduce dependence on foreign oil... ,
Ladies and gentleman, we have to do better than this. Energy security is American security. Our policy must reflect that we live in one world, not four or five separate ones and we need an energy policy of national purpose that confronts the hard realities and sets real priorities based on the needs of all Americans.
Obviously we all agree that reducing our dependence on foreign oil, especially oil from the politically toxic Middle East, is a necessity. But the American people want honesty about how you do it, not a false security blanket that promises something undeliverable in the short term and precious little amounting to real progress in the long term.
In recent months, I’ve talked to citizens across our country, to businesspeople, farmers and the energy industry; to academic experts and local officials; to the public health community and public interest organizations, and I have found that more and more Americans "get it." They are dissatisfied with the fossil-fuel based energy policies that made sense fifty years ago, but which cannot sustain our nation in the future. They are frustrated because we don’t pursue alternatives they know we could adopt. They want an economy where hardworking citizens can’t automatically be held hostage to the whims of a handful of nations that rig the world oil market. They want leaders setting an agenda where protecting our environment, our land, our water, our air and our public health are national priorities, not after-thoughts. They want a country where energy security is not just a slogan or an empty promise, but a growing reality. It is with all of their views and with their input, expertise and practical experience that I respectfully suggest it is time now to pursue a national Strategic Energy Initiative.
Center for National Policy Ronald Reagan Building January 22, 2002

If I am President of the United States,
we will do whatever it takes to ensure that the 21st century American military is the strongest in the world... John Kerry 17/3/04

Supporting our troop
The first definition of patriotism is keeping faith with those who’ve worn the uniform of the United States of America. Our obligation is to keep faith with the men and women of the American military and their families-whether they are on active duty, in the National Guard or Reserves, or veterans.

Count every vote
Free and fair elections are the foundation of our democracy. In the last year, millions more Americans registered and went to the polls than ever before and millions in Iraq and Afghanistan voted for the first time in their lives. Yet, thousands upon thousands of Americans still fear that when they walk into the polls to vote, there is a very real chance that their vote will not be counted or they will lose the opportunity to vote at all because they are forced to stand in line for hours due to a shortage of machines.

Count Every Vote Act of 2005
On February 17th Senators John Kerry, Hillary Clinton, Barbara Boxer and Frank Lautenberg introduced S 450 the “Count Every Vote Act of 2005” to fully fund the Help America Vote Act, fund the activities of the Election Assistance Commission, and help states invest in better voting machines with paper trails.

Kerry Statement on the Release of the DNC Voting Rights Institute Ohio Report
“Protecting the right to vote isn't a Democratic or Republican value, it's an American value. Washington must pass reform like the Count Every Act of 2005, but we must also build a groundswell of support in communities across the country to hold elected leaders accountable for failing to protect the right to vote.
“I will share the results of this study with elected leaders across the country and the hundreds of thousands of Americans who volunteered on my campaign in 2004. I am also committed to working with civil rights leaders and community activists across the country to secure real investments of time and resources for voter education and training.
“Forty years ago, in August 1965, the Voting Rights Act was signed by President Johnson. It was a landmark bi-partisan bill that allowed millions of Americans a true voice in our democracy. Forty years later as American troops put their lives on the line every day in the name of democracy across the world, we here at home must do everything we can to strengthen our democracy for all Americans.”

Foolish Think Thanks & Co (Bipartisan & Intelligence-Military Business) of the (neo) Liberal Democracy :
German Marshall Fund & Merck
“By moving into this building, the German Marshall Fund deliberately followed in the tradition [of the Marshall Plan], a tradition which remains alive because the projects, the staff, and the fellows of the German Marshall Fund are constantly developing it,” Merkel said.
Speaking to members of the U.S. Congress and the German Bundestag, European ambassadors, and other distinguished guests, Merkel also emphasized that the values of the Marshall Plan — freedom, democracy, and securing citizens’ rights — are just as important today as they were 50 years ago.
“Good transatlantic relations between not only the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States of America, but also between the European Union and the United States... are in the vested interest of both sides,” she said. "It enables us much better to solve outstanding problems."...

The Least Bad Iran Option, The Weekly Standard, Volume 010, Issue 23 March 7, 2005
The real choices we face in dealing with Tehran's nuclear program.
Iran is not seeking a peaceful nuclear energy program. Iran has no need of such a program, and its actions to date are not consistent with that end. Iran is seeking to develop a nuclear weapons capability, and there is nothing the European trio can offer it to compensate for the perceived security benefits nuclear weapons would bring.
When the talks fail, what then? Will European negotiators acknowledge that negotiations were insufficient to deter Iran, and move toward economic or political sanctions? No, they won't : The negotiations are not a means to an end, they are the end itself.
We will then see the second consequence of this option: European governments will argue that only the United States can offer the security guarantees that might tempt Iran to end its program...
It will be said, again, that America faces two kinds of adversaries--those with nuclear weapons that it does not invade, and those without nuclear weapons that it does invade...
There are now calls for the United States to move to a second option, which we might call the "united front" option. Here the United States would join France, Germany, and Great Britain and engage directly with Iran. ...Moreover, to assume that Iran's quest for nuclear weapons has to do with the current force posture of the United States in the region is to forget that Iran has been pursuing nuclear weapons for at least 18 years, since long before even the first Gulf War. And it is to ignore that Israel, Russia, and Pakistan all possess nuclear capabilities in the region. The consequence is that "united front" negotiations would also fail. What's more, since the United States, if it joined direct talks with Iran, would immediately become the senior negotiating partner, American diplomacy would be blamed for the failure. What then? Would Europe be more willing to adopt follow-on sanctions against Iran as a result of a perceived failure of collective U.S. and European diplomacy than it is as a result of the failure of its own diplomacy? The question answers itself. The "united front" option would permit the continuation of Iran's nuclear program and foster disagreement over follow-on measures among the allies.
This suggests a third option, which we might call a "united front with pre-agreed follow-on measures." Under this option the United States and Europe would agree in advance on a set of consequences to ensue if negotiations failed to dislodge Iran from its position. For example, they might agree that if negotiations had not successfully concluded within six months, the United States and Europe would jointly press for economic sanctions against Iran in the U.N. Security Council...this third option turns out to be a pipe dream, predicated on the hope that Europe would ever adopt economic and/or political sanctions against Iran, over and against the procedures of the U.N., in response to a perceived failure of American diplomacy.
s there no other option short of invasion? There is a "military strike" option, which would consist of a strike against all known and suspected Iranian nuclear weapons development facilities. A "military strike" option is thus fraught with risk for the United States from friend and foe. It does, though, have one critical difference from the other options examined here: If it were executed properly, it would eliminate or seriously retard Iran's nuclear weapons program... by effrey Bergner, J.Bregner is a senior transatlantic fellow at the German Marshall Fund of the United States.

Hoover Institution: Library and Archives - Historical background 1921
1- The Hoover Institution Archives, with its vast original documentation on modern history, is a core component of the institution that Herbert Hoover (1874–1964) founded at his alma mater, Stanford University, in 1919. After graduating in 1895, Hoover built a successful career as an international mining engineer. While pursuing business interests, he found time to serve his university as a trustee. He maintained strong ties with faculty, including Professor Ephraim D. Adams (1865-1930) of the history department. Even before World War I, Hoover helped Adams acquire transcripts of documents from the British Public Records Office. Similarly, he supplied funds for another Stanford historian, Payson Treat (1879-1972), to purchase rare books on China and the Far East. Hoover's lively intellectual curiosity motivated him to conduct research on the history of his own chosen field, geology. He delighted in writing scholarly footnotes to the English translation he and his wife made of the sixteenth- century Latin mining treatise Agricola's De Re Metallica. By 1912 Hoover had become a confirmed bibliophile and an accomplished collector.
Hoover expressed the mission of the archives best: "Here are the documents which record the suffering, the self-denial, the heroic deeds of men. Surely from these records there can be help to mankind in its confusions and perplexities, and its yearnings for peace....The purpose of this institution is to promote peace. Its records stand as a challenge to those who promote war."...

2- East-West relations became a major theme in the collecting activities following World War II. The James Donovan Collection documents a famous cold war incident when captured American U2 pilot Gary Powers was exchanged for Soviet spy Rudolf Abel. The Vietnam War is covered by collections such as the papers of General Edward Lansdale. Retrospective collecting continued with major acquisitions, including the Boris I. Nicolaevsky Collection, the papers and art collection of tsarist diplomat Nicholas de Basily, and Russian literary manuscripts from Gleb Struve and Josephine Pasternak. The Jay Lovestone papers document the founding of the American Communist Party and the international activities of the trade union movement...

3- During the interwar period, Herbert Hoover's network of connections with major figures in the Russian emigration enabled him to rescue the official files of the Okhrana, the tsarist secret political police. These files, which were transferred from the Russian embassy in Paris, are a major source on the early years of such revolutionaries as Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin, as well as hundreds of grassroots organizers. Files from several tsarist consular offices were sent to the Hoover Institution for safekeeping by displaced diplomats, setting a precedent for saving the archives of defeated governments and dissident organizations so that all sides of the historical record are available to historians.

4- In a parallel example, Professor Lutz, who took a special interest in building the German collections, was able to document the 1918 revolutionary movement and the Weimar Republic even as national socialism was trying to destroy this page of the German heritage. Aware of the rising militarism in Germany, Lutz traveled to Europe in 1939 to make arrangements for collecting documents in the event of another major war. In Berlin he visited Mathilde Jacob, former assistant to the cofounder of the German Communist Party, Rosa Luxemburg. Jacob entrusted Lutz with original correspondence and notes of her former employer. ...

5- Postwar financial reconstruction is reflected in the papers of economists such as Milton Friedman, Friedrich von Hayek, and other members of the Mont Pèlerin Society. Theories of freedom are articulated in the papers of the British philosopher of Austrian background Sir Karl Popper and the American philosopher Sidney Hook. Other major areas of interest include the history of the nuclear age, with the papers of various members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, including Dixy Lee Ray. Education policy has become another major collecting interest, with the collections assembled by Paul and Jean Hanna. Active collecting of election campaign materials shows the workings of democracy in various parts of the world such as postapartheid Africa and postcommunist Eastern Europe and Russia. The Hoover Institution Archives has continued its tradition of saving the history of political victims by securing the records of such organizations as the International Rescue Committee. The ongoing project for microfilming the Archives of the Soviet Communist Party and the Soviet State in Moscow is also in the best tradition of the founders of the Hoover Institution Archives. ..

6- Archives of the Soviet Communist Party and Soviet State: Microfilm Collection
Within the framework of the 1992 agreement between the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace (Hoover), the State Archives Service of Russia (ROSARKHIV), and Chadwyck-Healey, Inc.* (Chadwyck-Healey) and the 1998 agreement between Hoover, the State Archives of the Russian Federation (GARF), and Chadwyck-Healey, as of March 2002 Hoover has received a total of 10,545 microfilm reels, each containing approximately 850 frames (pages) of the documents entitled "Archives of the Soviet Communist Party and Soviet State."...

Carnegie Endowment for international peace
Board of trustees : James C. Gaither, Chairman Managing Director, Sutter Hill Ventures; Special Counsel, Cooley Godward, Gregory B. Craig Vice Chairman Partner, Williams & Connolly, Bill Bradley, Managing Director, Allen & Company, Robert Carswel, Of Counsel, Shearman & Sterling, Jerome A. Cohen, Of Counsel, Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison, Richard A. Debs, Advisory Director, Morgan Stanley, William H. Donaldson, Former Chairman, Securities and Exchange Commission, Roger Ferguson, Vice Chairman, Federal Reserve Board
Donald V. Fites, Chairman of the Board, Retired, Caterpillar, Inc....

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) Défenseur de la paix, de la justice sociale et de l'égalité ?.
La fortune amassée par le "roi de l'acier" et la Carnegie Steel Company permettra d'ancrer dans l'histoire la théorie de l'hérédité notamment par le truchement des recherches fondamentales du Cold Spring Harbor laboratory de Long Island.
Ces recherches inspireront aux élites nationalistes et militaristes américaines le recensement des races, des familles, des lignées bien avant Hitler et aboutiront même, conjointement à celles menées par la Rockefeller Foundation et les "Harriman charities", à plus de 60 000 stérilisations forcées. En 1924, par exemple, l'Etat de Virginie adoptera le Sterilization Act.
Rappelons que Rockefeller offrira en 1926 jusqu'à $250 000 (aujourd'hui $2 500 000) au German Psychiatric Institute du Kaiser Wilhelm Institute de Berlin qui deviendra le Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry et que le Dr. Ersnt Rudin, l'un des principaux psychiatres du KWIP, deviendra l'un des inspirateurs du système de répression médicale du IIIème Reich. L'Institute for Brain Research, autre section des institutions eugéniques du KWI, recevra également de Rockefeller (1929) un budget spécifique de $317 000 ($3 170 000) et un financement spécial sur sept ans afin d'assurer un programme de recherche biologique sur la race allemande.
Andrew Carnegie, en tant que précuseur de la pénalisation de la misère et de la tolérance zéro envers les plus faibles, et selon un article récent du Global New Service of the Jewish People, aurait financé dès 1911 un programme scientifique en 18 solutions pour identifier et éradiquer les faibles et les dégénérés aux Etats- Unis. La huitième solution "pour régler définitivement le problème" sera l'euthanasie.
Ce programme global historique anticipant des atrocités hitlériennes aura pour intitulé : "Preliminary report of the committee of the Eugenic Section of the American Breeder's Association to study and to report on the best practical means for cutting off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the Human Population." (JTANews, "Hitler made eugenics famous but he took it from United States" et War Against the Weak by E.Black , 2003)

China Program

A Smoke Screen : China Needs Better Leadership, Not Another Morality Campaign
In a recent article in Newsweek International, Carnegie’s Minxin Pei argues that the Chinese government’s attempts to revive Confucianism in order to fill the “values vacuum” left by the decline of communist ideology will fail. Dr. Pei argues that the principal source of social disharmony is not a lack of moral values. Rather, the real problem lies in misguided official policies, including a lack ofstate resources devoted to health and education in the countryside, as well as pervasive official corruption. The Confucian mandate of heaven must be regained, not through empty preaching, but by good governance...

Carnegie Research Program

Democracy, rule of law
Promoting the rule of law has become a major part of Western efforts to spread democracy and market economics around the world. Yet, although programs to foster the rule of law abroad have mushroomed, well-grounded knowledge about what factors ensure success, and why, remains scarce. In the new book Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad, edited by Thomas Carothers, incisive, accessible essays offer vivid portrayals and penetrating analyses of the challenges that define this vital but often misunderstood field...

Russian Democracy and Civil Society : Back to the future
In his testimony before the U.S. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Carnegie Senior Associate Andrew C. Kuchins outlines Russia's current situation and prospects for the  future. Covering issues of human rights, civil society and democratic governance, Kuchins analyzes the leadership of Vladimir Putin, the authoritarian trend in Russian politics, the subsequent foreign policy implications, and what the U.S. can do to address these issues...

The Group of fifty
The Group of Fifty is a non-profit initiative and its activities are funded by contributions of the membership. The network is co-sponsored by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Inter-American Dialogue. The Group of Fifty was created in response to new imperatives caused by on-going economic and political developments in the Americas and in the rest of the world. Economic liberalization and increasing globalization of business relations and activities have increased the complexity of the tasks of those in charge of the main business enterprises in the region.
The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Group of Fifty will take place October 11-15, 2006 in Washington D.C.  The theme for this year’s meeting will be “Washington Unveiled” and will be an insider’s view of the politics and culture of one of the world’s most powerful cities. Participants will engage in discussions with multi-lateral agency executives, research scholars, and government officials, and will also enjoy some local entertainment and guided visits around the capital and national monuments...

Brookings Institution
History (photo: Robert Brookings with Andrew Carnegie)
1- On March 13, 1916 a group of business leaders and academics announced the establishment of a nonpartisan private research agency in Washington called the Institute for Government Research. Forty-three donors pledged $160,000 to begin and operate the Institute for a five year period. The IGR, forerunner of the Brookings Institution, was founded on the principles that research, expertise and administrative competence were needed for government efficiency. The founders of the IGR believed that day to day government was not a matter of political emotionalism; but of quiet competence and professionalism. They believed that critical analysis of government administration and operation, accompanied by specific suggestions for improvement was needed. Frank N. Goodnow, President of Johns Hopkins University, was elected Chairman of the Board of Trustees and Robert S. Brookings was elected Vice Chairman. William F. Willoughby, a professor of politics at Princeton University became the first director, in charge of a staff of six researchers.
2- The Institute's early work was to help each government agency bring its administrative routines into line with modern business methods. They advised agencies on setting up modern accounting systems, filing systems and personnel manuals. During World War I, the Institute offered its services to the government. Organizational surveys were conducted for the Council of National Defense and the Army Surgeon General's office; and the American Red Cross sought assistance in revising its accounting and financial systems...
3- World War I led to a growing Federal debt and an interest in controlling government finance and expenditures. IGR researchers provided guidance that resulted in the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921; which placed government finance on a budget basis, established the Bureau of the Budget to help the president prepare and administer the budget; and established an office of Comptroller General as an independent check on expenditures. Wartime economic mobilization also showed the previously untapped productive strength of the national economy. Chairman Robert Brookings believed that economic research could be used as a powerful tool to avoid economic losses due to waste and friction...
4- The Depression: Voice of Opposition
5- War and Readjustment
6- Academic Prestige For Policy Research
7- National Doubts and Confusion
8- Setting New Agendas
9- Continuity and Change

The Brookings Institution and the American Enterprise Institute Launch Joint Election Reform Project
Senator Barack Obama (D-IL) gives inaugural remarks :
Washington, D.C. (January 25, 2006) — Today, two of America's key policy research institutions–the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) and the Brookings Institution–launch the new AEI-Brookings Election Reform Project. The program is a joint effort to monitor the implementation of the Help America Vote Act (HAVA) and to develop a bipartisan policy agenda for further improvements in the administration of elections.
The new AEI-Brookings Election Reform Project will encourage constructive changes in HAVA and its implementation. It will also synthesize election-related research, and strengthen the link between the research and policy communities. The effort began today with the initiation of a new website, www.electionreformproject.org. The site will be constantly updated and will include information on voter registration, technology, access, early and absentee voting, provisional balloting, election administration and voting integrity issues...

AEI-Brookings Election Reform Project Launch
Norman Ornstein, Resident Scholar at AEI, and Thomas Mann, Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution, then moderated a discussion of the past and future of election reform among experts in election law, technology, and administration...

AEI-Brookings Technology Improves From 2000, But What Next ?
Since the notorious butterfly ballots and hanging chads of 2000, voting technology has improved considerably. The 2004 election witnessed widespread use of optical scan and DRE equipment, as well as general progress among states towards realizing HAVA’s mandate to make machines more secure, accountable, and accessible. What are the next steps? The Election Assistance Commission has recently met to discuss implementing its Voting System Certification Program, the Government Accountability Office and the National Academy of Sciences have identified key questions that need to be answered, and academic research continues...

The Center for National Policy (CNP) is a non-profit, non-partisan public policy organization located in Washington, DC. Founded in 1981, the Center’s mission is to engage national leaders with new policy options and innovative programs designed to advance progressive ideas in the interest of all Americans.
The goal of the Center is to promote the transfer of ideas and information from experts to public officials, and therefore better serve American citizens and the public interest.
Working with a small core staff, CNP brings together policy-makers and experts from a range of organizations, including other think tanks, business, labor and academia, to encourage new thinking, promote public awareness and catalyze action.
The Center uses public opinion research, as well as substantive and political analysis, to frame options and make recommendations. The Center’s programs include active media outreach and extensive use of the web as well as more traditional methods of dissemination.
In October 2003, Timothy J. Roemer was named President of CNP.  Formerly a six-term member of Congress from Indiana, he most recently has served as a member of the bipartisan 9-11 Commission.  His predecessors as president include Madeleine K. Albright, prior to her service as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations; the late Kirk O'Donnell, who was chief counsel to the Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives Thomas P. 'Tip' O'Neill, and Maureen S. Steinbruner, currently serving as CNP Vice President and Senior Policy Advisor.
“Four years after the attacks of September 11th, the United States has not done all it can and should do to wage and win a comprehensive war against Al-Qaeda and their followers”, said Tim Roemer, former 9/11 Commissioner and President of the Center for National Policy at a conference co-hosted by CNP on September 9th in New York City. “The threat of catastrophic terrorist attacks against our homeland are the most important national security challenge we will face this generation,” said Roemer. “To secure America in the 21st century, we must target the terrorists more effectively, move faster and stronger to protect the homeland and put equal amounts of effort into preventing the rise of future terrorists as we do in all our other counter-terrorism missions.”...

CNP Nuclear Security Study Group
On July 18th, 2005, the Center for National Policy hosted the inaugural meeting of the Congressional Nuclear Security Study Group.   Under a grant from the MacArthur Foundation, CNP is organizing a series of meetings and briefings for Members and Staff, to explore strategies for keeping loose fissile material out of the hands of terrorists. At this first meeting of the Study Group, policy experts from several different organizations addressed the current status of the threat environment, cooperative threat reduction programs, global threat reduction initiatives, and Congressional legislation.  The bipartisan group will meet regularly over the course of the next two years.
Panel, Chaired by CNP President Tim Roemer, Warns of a Nuclear 9/1, Event Co-sponsored by the Center for National Policy and the 9-11 Public Discourse Project
The possibility of a nuclear terror attack poses a real and present threat to the United States, and not enough is being done to prevent it. That was the stark conclusion drawn at a June 27th panel chaired by CNP President Tim Roemer, convened to discuss the status of progress on recommendations of the 9/11 Commission, of which Roemer was a member. Former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn, who currently serves as co-chairman and CEO of the Nuclear Threat Initiative, outlined the steps needed to secure nuclear weapons and weapons-usable material worldwide and to restrict the spread of bomb-making capacity. Referencing the 9/11 Commission report, Roemer pointed to evidence of terrorists’ intention to attempt a nuclear strike, and said, “Congress and the Administration have not given this the ‘maximum effort’ necessary. Action is needed, and it’s needed now.”...
New School University

President Kerrey Chairs Discussion on “Securing The Homeland”
President Kerrey chaired a discussion on “Securing the Homeland” on Tuesday, June 28, at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. He was joined by Clark Kent Ervin, former Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security; C. Stewart Verdery, former Assistant Secretary for Policy and Planning, Border and Transportation Security Directorate, Department of Homeland Security; and Dr. Stephen Flynn, Jeanne J. Kirkpatrick Senior Fellow for National Security Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations, and author of America the Vulnerable. The hearing was part of the 9/11 Public Discourse Project. For more information, go to www.9-11pdp.org...

When I Was a Young Man
Bob Kerrey's book, When I Was a Young Man : A Memoir (A James H. Silberman Book/Published by Harcourt, Inc) was published in 2002.

The challenge of freedom
by Bob Kerrey

Williams & Connolly
200 avocats, conseil en politique libérale, groupe de pression national occasionel, des conflits d'intérêts ? Impossible! Voir en détail "l'affaire Clinton"...
...In three stints away from Williams & Connolly LLP, Mr. Craig (Carnegie's Board of Trustees) has served in government in a variety of capacities:
In September 1998, President Clinton appointed Mr. Craig to be Assistant to the President and Special Counsel in the White House where Mr. Craig served as quarterback of the President’s team that was assembled to defend against impeachment. Mr. Craig was also a member of the President’s trial team in the United States Senate and presented the President’s defense with respect to Count One during that trial.
In 1997, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright appointed Mr. Craig to be one of her senior advisors, and he served the Secretary as her Director of Policy Planning during the years 1997 to 1998.
For five years (1984-88), he served as Senator Edward Kennedy’s Senior Advisor on Defense, Foreign Policy and National Security issues...

Greenberg Quinlan Rosner
Consultant politique et stratégie commerciale, lobby libéral dans 60 pays, au coeur d'un réseau de think tanks, de gouvernements étrangers, de multinationales & de conflits d'intérêts ? Juridiquement improuvable, client et business. Seuls les résultats parlent...Un site à visiter de toute urgence!
"Greenberg Quinlan Rosner provides research and strategic advice to elected leaders, political campaigns, issue groups, and leading corporations around the world. Our clients include some of the world’s most prominent progressive leaders, candidates" :
• President Eduardo Duhalde (Argentina)
• Mayor Michael Häupl (Vienna, Austria)
• SPÖ (Austria)
• President Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada (Bolivia)
• MNR (Bolivia)
• Minister Emma Mejia, Colombia
• PRD (Dominican Republic)
• Chancellor Gerhard Schröder (Germany)
• SPD (Germany)
• President Carlos Roberto Flores Facusse (Honduras)
• President Manuel Zelaya (Honduras)
• PLH (Honduras)
• Prime Minister Péter Medgyessy (Hungary)
• Fine Gael (Ireland)
• Prime Minister Ehud Barak (Israel)
• HaAvoda (Israeli Labor Party, Israel)
• Francesco Rutelli (Italy)
• l'Ulivo (Italy)
• Francisco Labastida Ochoa (Mexico)
• PRI (Mexico)
• National Democratic Institute - Nepal
• National Democratic Institute - Pakistan
• President Alejandro Toledo (Peru)
• Freedom Union/Democratic Party (Poland)
• Prime Minister Adrian Našstase (Romania)
• Minister Mircea Geoanaš (Romania)
• PSD (Romania)
• President Nelson Mandela
• President Thabo Mbeki (South Africa)
• ANC (South Africa)
• Prime Minister Tony Blair
• British Labour Party (UK)

1- It was on May 14, 1948, that Project RAND — an outgrowth of World War II — separated from the Douglas Aircraft Company of Santa Monica, California, and became an independent, nonprofit organization. Adopting its name from a contraction of the term research and development, the newly formed entity was dedicated to furthering and promoting scientific, educational, and charitable purposes for the public welfare and security of the United States.
Almost at once, RAND developed a unique style, blending scrupulous nonpartisanship with rigorous, fact-based analysis to tackle society's most pressing problems. Over time, RAND assembled a unique corps of researchers, notable not only for individual skills but also for interdisciplinary cooperation. By the 1960s, RAND was bringing its trademark mode of empirical, nonpartisan, independent analysis to the study of many urgent domestic social and economic problems.

2- The Origins of RAND
World War II had revealed the importance of technology research and development for success on the battlefield and the wide range of scientists and academics outside the military who made such development possible. Furthermore, as the war drew to a close, it became apparent that complete and permanent peace might not be assured. There were discussions among people in the War Department, the Office of Scientific Research and Development, and industry who saw a need for a private organization to connect military planning with research and development decisions.
In a report to the Secretary of War, Commanding General of the Army Air Force H. H. "Hap" Arnold wrote:

3- "During this war the Army, Army Air Forces, and the Navy have made unprecedented use of scientific and industrial resources. The conclusion is inescapable that we have not yet established the balance necessary to insure the continuance of teamwork among the military, other government agencies, industry, and the universities. Scientific planning must be years in advance of the actual research and development work."...

4- In May 1946, the first RAND report appeared, Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship,[1] concerned with the potential design, performance, and possible use of man-made satellites. A year later, Project RAND moved from the Douglas plant at Santa Monica Airport to offices in downtown Santa Monica. Also in 1947, a symposium was held in New York as part of Project RAND's Evaluation Section as a first step in enlisting social scientists for the staff.
By early 1948, Project RAND had grown to 200 staff members with expertise in a wide range of fields including:
• mathematicians
• engineers
• aerodynamicists
• physicists
• chemists
• economists
• psychologists...

Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship
Major General Curtis E. LeMay, then Deputy Chief of the Air Staff for Research and Development, considered space operations to be an extension of air operations. He tasked Project RAND to undertake a feasibility study of its own with a three-week deadline. The resulting report arrived two days before a critical review of the subject with the Navy. The central argument turns on the feasibility of such a space vehicle from an engineering standpoint, but alongside the curves and tabulations are visionary statements, such as that by Louis Ridenour on the significance of satellites to man’s store of knowledge, and that of Francis Clauser on the possibility of man in space. But the most riveting observation, one that deserves an honored place in the Central Premonitions Registry, was made by one of the contributors, Jimmy Lipp (head of Project RAND’s Missile Division), in a follow-on paper nine months later: “Since mastery of the elements is a reliable index of material progress, the nation which first makes significant achievements in space travel will be acknowledged as the world leader in both military and scientific techniques. To visualize the impact on the world, one can imagine the consternation and admiration that would be felt here if the United States were to discover suddenly that some other nation had already put up a successful satellite.”....

Commentary by RAND Staff
Pakistan vs. al-Qaida
by Farhana Ali, this commentary appeared in United Press International on March 13, 2006,Farhana Ali is proficient in Urdu, Punjabi, and Hindi,Before joining RAND, he worked as a counterterrorism analyst for the DCI Counterterrorist Center at the Central Intelligence Agency. Work has included examining shifts in the current terrorist threat environment; identifying terrorist group capabilities and vulnerabilities; and analyzing the rise of militant Islam and terror groups in the Arabian Peninsula...

Defusing the Iranian Crisis
by F. Stephen Larrabee, this commentary appeared in Orange County Register on March 9, 2006, languages: Russian, German, French, Bulgarian, modern Greek, background: has taught at Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Georgetown University and the University of Southern California. Before joining RAND, served as Vice President and Director of Studies of the Institute of East-West Security Studies in New York and was a distinguished Scholar in Residence at the Institute from 1989-1990. Also served on the U.S. National Security Council staff in the White House, as a specialist on Soviet-East European affairs and East-West political-military relations...

The Threat of Oil Jihad
by Brian Michael Jenkins Expertise : Terrorism, comparing terrorism preparedness and response to storm preparedness and response
Background: A senior advisor to the president of the RAND Corporation and one of the world's leading authorities on terrorism. Founded the RAND Corporation's terrorism research program in 1972, has written frequently on terrorism, and has served as an advisor to the federal government and the private sector on the subject. A former Army captain who served with Special Forces in Vietnam and also a former deputy chairman of Kroll Associates. Served as a captain in the Green Berets in the Dominican Republic and later in Vietnam (1966-1970). In 1996, was appointed by President Clinton to be a member of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. Has served as an advisor to the National Commission on Terrorism (1999-2000) and in 2000 was appointed as a member of the U.S. Comptroller General's Advisory Board. Is also a special advisor to the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and a member of the board of directors of the ICC's Commercial Crime Services. Has authored many books, including International Terrorism : A New Mode of Conflict, the editor and coauthor of Terrorism and Personal Protection, coeditor and coauthor of "Aviation Terrorism and Security, and coauthor of The Fall of South Vietnam...

In Political Analysis, Just the Facts, Please
by James A. Thomson, Expertise : Europe, global security environment, national security strategy, NATO, terrorism and other emerging threats, U.S.-Foreign relations, Background : President and CEO since 1989. Has served RAND in a variety of roles: Director of RAND's research program in national security, foreign policy, defense policy, and arms control ; Vice President in charge of the Project AIR FORCE division, which performs studies and analyses on the range of issues important to the future of the U.S. Air Force ; and Executive Vice President. Prior to joining RAND, served as a member of the National Security Council staff at the White House, primarily responsible for defense and arms control matters related to Europe. Has also served as an analyst in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Awarded honorary Doctor of Science degree from Purdue University, and an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Pepperdine University. Affiliations:Council on Foreign Relations, New York, International Institute for Strategic Studies, London, England,Board of the Los Angeles World Affairs Council, Director of AK Steel Corporation and Texas Biotechnology Corporation...

CSIS ... links to NED, CIA, USAID...
CSIS was launched at the height of the Cold War, dedicated to the simple but urgent goal of finding ways for America to survive as a nation and prosper as a people. During the following four decades, CSIS has grown to become one of the nation’s and the world’s preeminent public policy institutions on U.S. and international security.
From its beginning, CSIS has been committed to bipartisan problem solving. While partisan competition advances ideas, America prospers when policy leaders develop a consensus across the political spectrum. CSIS actively unites leaders from both parties to join in shared problem solving.

2005 : Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff adopts many of the reorganization ideas offered in DHS 2.0, a 2004 report by CSIS and the Heritage Foundation, in his restructuring plan for the department.
2005 : Recommendations made by the CSIS Post-Conflict Reconstruction Project results in the creation of an office for reconstruction at the Department of State and a U.S. government training center for reconstruction and stabilization issues at the Naval Postgraduate School.

2005 : Recommendations in the CSIS report Barracks and Brothels : Peacekeepers and Human Trafficking in the Balkans help shape provisions in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (HR 972), which addresses the links between peacekeeping and human trafficking.

2005 : CSIS conducts the “Steadfast Resolve” simulation exercise as a means to identify challenges to top government officials in responding to a terrorist attack that is harmful, but not catastrophic, and where there is uncertainty about possible follow-on attacks.

2005 : Hills Governance Center is launched at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, for the purpose of promoting transparency and accountability across the private, public, and civic sectors. It joins centers in Korea and the Philippines, which were opened in 2003...

2003 : Co-chaired by Senators Bill Frist and John Kerry, the CSIS Task Force on HIV/AIDS begins phase two in its effort to strengthen U.S. leadership and build consensus around HIV/AIDS policy in the “second-wave” states of China, Russia, India, Nigeria, and Ethiopia.
2002: CSIS releases The Global Retirement Crisis: The Threat to World Stability and What to Do about It. Co-published with Citigroup, the report educates readers on the impending world pension crisis and on ways to reduce the negative economic ramifications of global aging.

2002 : CSIS launches the Abshire-Inamori Leadership Academy to develop future leaders with character, creativity, and strategic vision. Kazuo Inamori provides an endowment of $5 million for the academy’s leadership-building effort.

2001 : CSIS forms the Terrorism Task Force, led by CSIS scholars, to assist in the development of long-term, national strategies to combat future terrorist attacks against the U.S. homeland. This effort results in the publication of To Prevail: An American Strategy for the Campaign against Terrorism, the first post-9/11 guide to fighting transnational terrorism.

2001 : A CSIS report, Computer Exports and National Security in a Global Era: New Tools for a New Century, recommends ending performance-based hardware controls on computers and microprocessors; strengthening nonproliferation controls that focus on end users and projects of concern ; and finding new ways to take advantage of information technologies to build U.S. military superiority.

2001 : CSIS holds the “Dark Winter” exercise to determine the health and security implications of a smallpox attack in the United States.

2001 : U.S. Policy to End Sudan’s War, a report produced by an international task force headed by the CSIS Africa Program and members of Congress, provides policymakers with a pragmatic strategy for bringing a lasting peace to Sudan.

2001 : CSIS Strategic Energy Initiative finds that U.S. energy policy lacks global perspective and contains inherent contradictions, making it potentially difficult to meet emerging supply threats...

Homeland security
The attacks on the World Trade Center, Pentagon and in Madrid and London demonstrated the lethality of a new threat: not from other nations against military targets, or from terrorists with limited political objectives, but from non-state actors indiscriminately striking civilian and other targets, possibly with weapons of mass destruction.  Confronting this threat requires new strategic thinking, new partnerships with historically 'non-security' institutions, a radical restructuring of existing national defense organizations and improved international co-operation.
 CSIS’s work in this area centers on the Homeland Security Program, which focuses on advancing policies, practices, and partnerships to keep America safe and secure at home and abroad. The Technology and Public Policy Program covers cyber security issues, intelligence reform, and how to leverage information technology for the purposes of homeland security. CSIS is also a major contributor to the Markle Foundation Task Force on National Security in the Information Age which examines methods to create an information network that prevents terrorism, while preserving civil liberties.  With its Mexico Project, strong focus on Canada and the Caribbean and array of activities related to Central and South America, the Americas Program also examines issues relevant to U.S. homeland security...

BOARD of Trustees, CSIS
Sam Nunn -- Cochairman & CEO, Nuclear Threat Initiative
Vice Chairman:
David M. Abshire -- President, Center for the Study of the Presidency
Chairman, Executive Committee:
Anne Armstrong -- Former U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain
- George L. Argyros -- Chairman & CEO, Arnel & Affiliates
- Betty Beene -- Former President & CEO, United Way of America
- Reginald K. Brack -- Former Chairman & CEO, Time, Incorporated
- William E. Brock** -- Chairman, Bridges LearningSystems, Inc.
- Harold Brown -- Counselor, CSIS
- Zbigniew Brzezinski -- Counselor, CSIS
- William S. Cohen** -- Chairman & CEO, The Cohen Group
- Ralph Cossa -- President, Pacific Forum/CSIS
- Jeffrey M. Cunningham -- Chairman & CEO, Directorship Services LLC
- Richard Fairbanks -- Counselor, CSIS
- Michael P. Galvin* -- President, Galvin Enterprises, Inc.
- John J. Hamre* -- President & CEO, CSIS
- Linda W. Hart -- Vice Chairman & CEO, The Hart Group, Inc.
- Ben W. Heineman, Jr. -- CSIS Trustee and Senior Adviser
- Thomas O. Hicks -- Chairman, Hicks Holdings LLC
- Carla A. Hills -- Chairman & CEO, Hills & Company
- Ray L. Hunt -- Chairman & CEO, Hunt Consolidated, Inc.
- E. Neville Isdell -- Chairman & CEO, The Coca-Cola Company
- Henry A. Kissinger** -- Chairman & CEO, Kissinger Associates, Inc.
- Kenneth G. Langone -- President & CEO, Invemed Associates, LLC
- Donald B. Marron -- Chairman & CEO, Lightyear Capital
- Joseph Nye -- Distinguished Service Professor, Harvard University, Kennedy School of Government
- E. Stanley O’Neal -- Chairman of the Board, CEO, & President, Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc.
- Felix G. Rohatyn -- President, Rohatyn Associates, LLC
- David Rubenstein -- Managing Director, The Carlyle Group
- Charles A. Sanders -- Former Chairman & CEO, Glaxo Inc.
- James R. Schlesinger** -- Senior Advisor, Lehman Brothers, Inc.
- William A. Schreyer* -- Chairman Emeritus, Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc.
- Brent Scowcroft**-- President, Forum for International Policy
- Rex Tillerson -- President, Exxon Mobil
- Murray Weidenbaum -- Hon. Chair, Weidenbaum Center, Washington University
- Dolores D. Wharton -- Retired Chairman & CEO, The Fund For Corporate Initiatives, Inc.
- Frederick B. Whittemore -- Advisory Director, Morgan Stanley

Dangerous Laws
(emergence of the fascist american state)

USA Patriot Act

Intelligence Activities (1) and National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon The United States (6) (27/11/02, 107th Congress)

The full fascist Law 107-306 (pdf)

FBI memo encourages local police to spy on protest groups
by Jamie Chapman (2/12/03)
A confidential FBI memorandum sent to over 15,000 local law enforcement agencies in October urged them to “be alert to these possible indicators of protest activity and report any potentially illegal acts to the nearest FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force.” Among the “criminal activities” of protesters catalogued in the memo are “use of the internet to recruit, raise funds, and coordinate their activities prior to demonstrations” as well as “[d]uring the course of a demonstration ... using cell phones or radios to coordinate activities or to update colleagues about ongoing events.”...

US Dangerous Research Fellows & Co,
The Third Way

(Bipartisan & Intelligence-Military Business) of the (neo) Liberal Democracy

E.Gresser, RD Asmus, L. Brainard, MA Flournoy, PH Gordon, M.McFaul, G.Graig, JR. Blaker & SJ Nider, K. Campbell, KM Pollack, J.Rosner (former special advisor to President Clinton and responsible for coordinating legislative work by the White House, State Department, Defense Department, CIA...and former senior aide to US Senator Bob Kerrey), Bob Kerrey...

US New Democrats-PPI & Progressive Internationalism
Will Marshall is president and founder of the Progressive Policy Institute (PPI), a center for policy innovation in Washington, D.C. Established in 1989, PPI's mission is to modernize progressive politics and government for the Information Age.
Called "Bill Clinton's idea mill," the Institute's research and proposals were the source for many of the "New Democrat" themes that figured prominently in national politics during the 1990s. PPI also has been integral to the spread of "Third Way" thinking to center-left parties around the world.

The Third Way after Clinton
The challenge facing these and other emerging New Democrat leaders is to identify the large tasks of progressive reform after Clinton. They must offer ideas for modernizing ailing public sector systems grounded in an analysis of America's changing electorate and the need for Democrats to build a wider progressive coalition. In some areas, such as spurring "new economy" growth and modernizing America's basic public schools, they already have begun to plow new ground. Lieberman and Bayh, for example, have spearheaded a radical change in national education policy. They call for a new bargain in which Washington offers the states more money and flexibility in using it in return for much greater accountability for results...

US Democratic Ledearship Council, The Third Way : Progressive Gouvernance-DLC
The Democratic Leadership Council is an idea center, catalyst, and national voice for a reform movement that is reshaping American politics by moving it beyond the old left-right debate. Under the leadership of founder and CEO Al From, the DLC seeks to define and galvanize popular support for a new public philosophy built on progressive ideals, mainstream values, and innovative, non bureaucratic, market-based solutions...

Democratic (neo) Liberal Global Power
(second military-intelligence-business generation) leaded by Al From, Evan Bayh...
Al From is founder and chief executive officer of the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC), a dynamic idea action center of the "Third Way" governing philosophy that is reshaping progressive politics in the United States and around the globe. He is also chairman of the Third Way Foundation and publisher of the DLC's flagship bi-monthly magazine, Blueprint: Ideas for a New Century.
As a founder of the DLC -- birthplace of the New Democrat movement and the Third Way in America -- and its companion think tank, the Progressive Policy Institute (PPI), From leads a national movement that since the mid-1980s has provided both the action agenda and the ideas for New Democrats to successfully challenge the conventional political wisdom in America and, in the process, redefine the center of the Democratic Party...

The Third Way for the New Us World Leadership :
Bill Clinton (DLC Chairman 1990-91), Hillary Clinton...Anthony Blair, Gerhard Schroeder, Massimo D'Alema, Wim Kok...Hubert Vedrine (France in an Age of Globalization, Brookings Institution), Yutaka Kawashima (Japanese Foreign Policie at the Crossroads, Brookings Institution)...
America and the world have changed dramatically in the closing decades of the 20th century. The industrial order of the 20th century is rapidly yielding to the networked "New Economy" of the 21st century. Our political and governing systems, however, have lagged behind the rest of society in adapting to these seismic shifts. They remain stuck in the left-right debates and the top-down bureaucracies of the industrial past.
The Democratic Leadership Council, and its affiliated think tank the Progressive Policy Institute, have been catalysts for modernizing politics and government. From their political analysis and policy innovations has emerged a progressive alternative to the worn-out dogmas of traditional liberalism and conservatism. The core principles and ideas of this "Third Way" movement are set forth in The New Progressive Declaration: A Political Philosophy for the Information Age...

The Third (international) Way
Nine days after the July 7 terrorist bombings in London, Prime Minister Tony Blair told the British people that they must confront the "evil ideology" that generated the attacks -- not only the barbaric deeds of the killers but their ideas as well. In a speech at a Labor Party gathering (adapted below), Blair described the "global struggle" for hearts and minds, within Islam and without. He exhorted Britons to denounce as "rubbish" the canard that American policy is aimed at punishing Muslims or eradicating Islam. Moderates, he argued, can win the battle not through weakness, but only through strength.

A Dangerous Commission :
War and Corporate Criminals as Commission Members

"National Commission on Terrorist Attack Upon the United States"
(Statement by G.W.Bush, 27/11/02)

Bios officielles mais non représentatives des hauts commissaires du renseignement américain ou de l'intelligence-military-business commission members sur le site de la National Commission. Nous associerons librement le nom de chaque membre de la commission bipartisanne à une contre proposition analytique de l'événement 9-11, de la globalisation et de l'US intelligence business publiée par le Centre de Recherche sur la Mondialisation.
T.H.Kean (President Drew University , World Finance & Oil Business : Unocal/Amerada/Delta Hess, Caimans Islands, ben Mahfouz, Al Amoudi, ben Laden, Al Quaida, CFR), L.H.Hamilton, R.Ben Veniste (International Law Business, Chief Watergate Task Force 1973/1975, appointed to Nazi and Japanese War Crimes Working Group), F.F.Fielding, J.S.Gorelick (Vice-Secretary of Justice 1994-97 and Corporate Business : Vice-President of Fannie Mae, Executive Board of United Technologies, Schlumberger, Business avec Citigroup, Verizon, AT&T, Military Intelligence Business : CIA, CFR), S.Gorton, B.Kerrey (Food & Education Business-President New School University, CIA-Sea,l War Criminal -Vietnam 1969), J.H.Lehman & Co (Secretary of the Navy, Reagan, fournit 600 navires de guerre, lié à Kissinger, NSC, Paribas), T.J.Roemer (President of Center for National Policy, Federal Policy Business, Homeland Security and Terrorism), J.R.Thompson (Executive Board of Hollinger International, Hollinger Advisors : Z.Brzezinsky, Lord Carrington, V.Giscard d'Estaing, M.Tatcher, H.Kissinger, P.A.Volcker, Lord Rothschild...), P.D.Zelikow (Aspen Strategy Group, CFR)

American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, ultra-droite : AEI, fondé en 1943, défend la doctrine du gouvernement limité, la propriété privée, les multinationales et l'ingérence américaine. L'on retrouve à la tête du conseil d'Administration : K.L.Lay, Président de Enron, W.Stavropoulos, Président de Dow Chemical, E. Rush Président de State Farm Insurance, J.W. Snow, Président CSX et secrétaire au Trésor US.

AEI-Corée du Nord
"Corruption in North Korea's"
by Nicholas Eberstadt for US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 2004 (N. Eberstadt is Visiting Fellow Harvard University Center for Population and Developmental Studies, Consultant World Bank, State Department, A.I.D., US Bureau of The Census, AEI)
"Since I have no security clearances, I can offer no analysis of privileged information about North Korea’s illicit financial activities. What I thought I would do instead is, so to speak, share with you some of my homework about North Korea’s international sources of financing and revenues. With your permission, I’ll do so over the next several minutes. 
What I offer here in the following four accompanying charts are some estimates of North Korea’s international trade patterns. North Korea itself, you know well, provides no official data on its international trade or financial situation, so these figures, which in the parlance are called “mirror statistics,” are reconstructions of North Korea’s trade situation based upon the reports of North Korea’s trading partners, what those partners report about North Korea’s purchases and sales of goods and merchandise, summarized on a worldwide basis...
The first figure presented here is a reconstruction of North Korea’s commercial merchandise exports over the period from 1989 to 2002.  You’ll see that North Korea’s exports dropped dramatically after the end of the Soviet era, falling radically into the late 1990s, during the period of intense famine in the DPRK.
There is some indication of an upswing in these legitimate reported commercial merchandise sales by the DPRK since the late 1990s.  But if North Korea were a business and we looked at this chart, we would say it has essentially no legitimate means of support.  The country is selling less than $1 billion worth of commercial goods internationally, on an annual basis.  This, for a country of 20-plus million people, works out to less than $50 per citizen per year.  For an urbanized, literate, industrialized society, that is an extraordinarily low level of legitimate international exports...

"KOREA's Future and The Great Power"
by N. Eberstadt, R.J.Elling (AEI) "How To Finance Korean Economic Reconstruction"(2004),
Today, indeed, developments emanating from within the Korean peninsula stand to have a serious impact on the national interests of each of the Pacific powers. The prospective developments are poised not only to affect the security and well-being of these states directly, but also to challenge fledgling attempts to construct a durable regional order characterized by concerted cooperation among them. On the immediate horizon, North Korea's quest to develop an arsenal of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons--and the ballistic missile systems to target distant countries with these deadly devices--threatens to alter the security calculus that has maintained stability and peace in the North Pacific region for the past five decades. Moreover, still greater Korean challenges to international peace and stability may also lie in store.

The Persistence of North Korea
Can the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK, aka North Korea) survive--as a distinct regime, an autonomous state, a specific political-economic system, and a sovereign country ?
Can it continue to function in the manner in which it has been performing since the end of 1991--that is to say, since the final collapse of the Soviet empire ? Or is it doomed to join the Warsaw Pact’s failed communist experiments in the dustbin of history ? Or might it, instead, adapt and evolve--“surviving” in the sense of maintaining its political authority and power to rule but transforming its defining functional characteristics and systemic identity ?...

"La Grande Illusion, Korean Style"
by N.Eberstadt (2004)
n the early 1990s, Pyongyang got the previous President Bush to remove all US nuclear weapons from South Korea to grease a 1991 North-South deal for the "de-nuclearization" of the Korean peninsula. Soon Pyongyang was caught cheating on that particular understanding--so it threatened to turn Seoul into a "sea of fire", and got an improved bargain from the Clinton Administration (the "Agreed Framework" of 1994, with free oil shipped and free nuclear reactors in exchange for a freeze on then-extant DPRK nuclear sites). And when Kim & Co. seemed to be cheating on the "Agreed Framework" in 1999, Washington paid 500,000 tons in food aid--Pyongyang actually called it an "inspection fee"--to check out a single suspect nuclear site. (In the course of those negotiations, incidentally, North Korea warned Washington about a possible "pre-emptive strike" on the US if the talks didn't work out.) ...."Full bio of N.Eberstadt"

"Fighting Terror with a Forceful Neo-Con Stick... US Must Force European Governments to Choose Between Paris and Washington"
by Adam Daifallah (AEI, 2004)
"There is no middle way for Americans: It is victory or holocaust."

"An End To Evil : How to Win the War on Terror"
by D. Frum and R.Perle,
An End to Evil charts the agenda for what's next in the war on terrorism, as articulated by David Frum, former presidential speechwriter and bestselling author of The Right Man, and Richard Perle, former assistant secretary of defense and one of the most influential foreign-policy leaders in Washington.
This world is an unsafe place for Americans-- and the U.S. government remains unready to defend its people. In An End to Evil, David Frum and Richard Perle sound the alert about the dangers around us: the continuing threat from terrorism, the crisis with North Korea, the aggressive ambitions of China. Frum and Perle provide a detailed, candid account of America's vulnerabilities: a military whose leaders resist change, intelligence agencies mired in bureaucracy, diplomats who put friendly relations with their foreign colleagues ahead of the nation's interests. Perle and Frum lay out a bold program to defend America-- and to win the war on terror...

"What's About Charles Murray ?"
Charles Murray is W.H. Brady Scholar in Culture and Freedom at American Enterprise Institute and Fellow at Manhattan Institute...Il recevra 1 million de dollars de la Bradley Foundation pour l'écriture de Losing Ground et de The Bell Curve. Dans le premier il affirme que toute politique sociale envers la misère augmente la misère et dans le second que la population noire (par extension les déshérités des minorités) est génétiquement et intellectuellement inférieure à la population blanche! S'en suit une étrange théorie de politique policière qui fait aujourd'hui (comme hier sous le IIIème Reich) recette...
"Breaking new ground and old taboos, Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray tell the story of a society in transformation. At the top, a cognitive elite is forming in which the passkey to the best schools and the best jobs is no longer social background but high intelligence. At the bottom, the common denominator of the underclass in increasingly low intelligence rather than racial or social disadvantage.
The Bell Curve describes the state of scientific knowledge about questions that have been on people's minds for years but have been considered too sensitive to talk about openly--among them, IQ's relationship to crime, unemployment, welfare, child neglect, poverty, and illegitimacy; ethnic differences in intelligence; trends in fertility among women of different levels of intelligence; and what policy can do--and cannot do--to compensate for differences in intelligence. Brilliantly argued and meticulously documented, The Bell Curve is the essential first step in coming to grips with the nation's social problems..."

Losing Ground
American Social Policy, 1950-1980
"This outspoken and explosive book argues that the ambitious social programs of the Great Society to help the poor and disadvantaged not only did not accomplish what they set out to do but often made things worse..."

Théories néolibérales de politique policière et judiciaire, stratégie ultra-sécuritaire

Rapports du Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, ultra-droite. Le MI est fondé à New York en 1984 par Antony Fisher, mentor de Margaret Thatcher, et William Casey, ancien directeur de la CIA, dans le but de rechercher les meilleurs modes d'application des principes de l'économie de marché aux problèmes sociaux. Le MI promotionne aux USA, en Europe, en Amérique Latine et au Japon la doctrine de politique policière dite "Tolérance Zéro". L'élite financière des USA à la tête du MI : P.M.Flanigan de Warburg Dillon Read, M.Greenberg de American International, John Hennessy de Credit Suisse First Boston, R.J.Hurst de Goldamn Sachs & Co, B.R.Wien de Morgan Stanley & Co...

"Do Police Matter ? An Analysis of the impact of New York City's Police Reform"
(2001) by Pr. G.L. Kelling (Rutgers University's School of Criminal Justice, Adjunct Fellow at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government), W. H. Sousa (Ph. D. Candidate in the School of Criminal Justice and Director of Evaluation for the Police Institute of Rutgers University-Newark)
This study evaluates explanations that have been advanced for the sharp decline in crime in New York City during the 1990s. The authors consider arguments that crime drops have been the result of socio-economic factors, such as an improving economy, falling numbers of teenaged males, and declining use of crack cocaine. They also consider the argument that police interventions—particularly the enforcement of laws against minor crimes, known as “broken windows” policing—played a major role...

"Fixing Broken Windows : Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities"
(1996-1998) by G. L. Kelling, C. Coles (Research Associate in the Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management at the JFK School of Government, Harvard University)
"When sociologists James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling introduced their “Broken Windows” thesis in 1982, it gained immediate attention from academics and policy makers alike. “Broken Windows” finally acknowledged the connection between disorder, fear, crime, and urban decay that has been playing out in America’s cities for decades. Kelling, an Adjunct Fellow at the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, has co-authored his latest book, Fixing Broken Windows, with Catherine M. Coles, a lawyer and urban anthropologist. In it they explain in detail their prescription for solving the pervasive problems of crime and decay in our nation’s urban centers: control disorderly behavior in public places generally and a significant drop in serious crime will follow.
Rather than relying on the commonly cited, often politicized “solutions” of the day (a tough death penalty, more prisons, “three-strikes-you’re-out”), Kelling and Coles offer fresh new strategies for restoring order to our communities. Indeed, they challenge the very tenets of modern law enforcement orthodoxy, suggesting that police get out of their cars and into the neighborhoods in partnership with private citizens and local civic organizations. Instead of reacting to crime, Fixing Broken Windows champions crime prevention.
But it is not a passive, “midnight basketball” approach to prevention. Kelling and Coles advocate an aggressive, get-tough confrontation of public disorder in its various forms: vagrancy, vandalism, panhandling, etc. Their approach worked in New York City’s subways, where felonies have fallen by 75% in the 1990s, and all across New York City as former Police Chief William Bratton implemented many of Kelling’s and Coles’ policy recommendations.
As Mayor Rudolph Giuliani enters his 1997 reelection campaign, his outstanding record on crime may be the Mayor’s strongest asset in a contest many expect him to win. Across the nation, from San Francisco to Seattle to New Haven, cities have been implementing the Fixing Broken Windows approach to crimefighting and meeting with tremendous success. The impact of Kelling’s and Coles’ ideas will only multiply exponentially as Fixing Broken Windows gains national recognition"...

"Broken Windows"
(the police and neighborhood safety) by J.Q.Wilson and G.L.Kelling (1982)
"In the mid-l970s The State of New Jersey announced a "Safe and Clean Neighborhoods Program," designed to improve the quality of community life in twenty-eight cities. As part of that program, the state provided money to help cities take police officers out of their patrol cars and assign them to walking beats. The governor and other state officials were enthusiastic about using foot patrol as a way of cutting crime, but many police chiefs were skeptical. Foot patrol, in their eyes, had been pretty much discredited. It reduced the mobility of the police, who thus had difficulty responding to citizen calls for service, and it weakened headquarters control over patrol officers"...

The Manhattan Institute

Center for Legaly Policy (CLP)-MI Voice for reform of America's Civil Justice System, "judges needs to be neutral, impartial arbitrers of the law insulated from political winds"

"Trial Lawyers, Inc. A Report on The Lawsuit Industry in America 2003"

"The Rules of Lawyers : How The New Litigation Elite Threatens America's Rule of Law" et overlawyered.com/

"Losing ground : American social policy 1950-1980"
by Dr.Charles Murray (production culte du MI, l'intolérance judiciaire et policière, théorie des inégalités sociales raciales aux Etats-Unis. Ch. Murray est co auteur avec R. J. Hernstein-psychologue du très néoeugéniste THE BELL CURVE, Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, 1994

"CLASS ACTIONS & MASS TORTS : "Class actions, Competition,and Reflections on Federalism"
(2002) with Judge D.F.Levi (USDistrict Judge, Eastern District of California) fièvre traditonnaliste du fédéralisme judiciaire, crise de l'indépendance judiciaire des cours d'état, des cours fédérales, de la cour surprème, du congrés, lutte contre l'affairisme judiciaire et la concurrence économique entre les cours, poussée ultra conservatrice du pouvoir législatif du Congrès US, tentative désespérée de restauration d'une théorie de justice dévorée par ses créatures: le libéralisme et l'inégalitarisme...

"The new Class Action Targets : Are Class Undermining Regulation in the Fields of Financial Services, High technology, and Telecommunications ?"
(2002, le pouvoir judiciaire US à l'écoute des multinationales),

"Race and Ethnicity"

"Citizens' Initiative on Race and Ethnicity (CIRE)"
"Our deep belief in the potentiel of the individual and our commitment to free markets as the best guarantor of prosperity have kept the issues surrounding race and ethnicity near the top of our agenda" (MI) ...
"The main issue for minoritees : one nation, free markets and investments !" (US nationalisme et néolibéralisme)

"Beyond The Color Line"

"color blind and color consciousness a counterproductive approach to racial equality" : by Abigail Thernstrom & Stephan Thernstrom,

"The return of Crime"
"Investment will only continue if crime stays low", J.Vitullo-Martin, New York Sun and MI

Center for Civic Innovation at the Manhattan Institute(CCI)-MI
"How to reduce crime : "fixing broken windows theory" and education reform"
"Professor's G. L. Kelling, Institute's Programm Rebuilding Cities in Latin America"
Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Tolérance Zéro à l'assaut de l'Amérique Latine

"Transforming probation through leadership, the "broken windows model"
La liberté surveillée au service de la bonne conscience des néolibéraux

"full bio and selected articles of G.L.Kelling"
L'un des nombreux inspirateurs neo-fascistes d'une théorie politique de police municipale, fédérale et d'état : USA, Amérique latine, Europe, Japon

"Sex, Drugs, and Delinquency in Urban and Suburban Public Schools"
Comment combattre l'exode vers les banlieues des familles bourgeoises et le discrédit jeté sur l'application des théories politiques policières, judiciaires et immobilières urbaines, la ghettoisation des riches serait insupportable !... by J.P.Greene, Ph.D., G.Forster, Ph.D. (MI)

"America Works' Criminal Justice Program: Providing Second Chance Through Work"
"Work is better than Crime and Prison!" by Dr.W.B.Eimicke (Picker Center for Executive Education at Columbia University) & Dr.S.Cohen (Director of the Executive Master of Public Administration Program School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University)

Center for Research on Religion and Urban Civil Society (CCRUS- Report University of Pennsylvania and MI)
"The InnerChange Freedom Initiative (IFI) A Preliminary Evaluation of a Faith-Based Prison Program" (doc, pdf)
by B.R.Johnson, D.B.Larson
Conversion multiethnique des prisonniers au catholicisme, l'ultra doite US et les programmes de réhabilitation sociale...

CITY Journal, New York City-MI
"How to run a Police Department" G.L.Kelling
"Sanity on Mental Illness : The New York Times at last recognizes, unmedicated, the mentally ill can be dangerous" (2000)
"Theory vs. Reality ? The French Choose Theory, European Elites Refuse to See the Connection between Family Breakdown and Spiraling Crime" (2002)

Théories néolibérales US de la biocratie et du néoeugénisme (psychologie, biosciences, économie et domination).

"IQ Will Put You In Your Place"
by Dr. Charles Murray (American Enterprise Institute of Washington, 1997)
magine several hundred families which face few of the usual problems that plague modern society. Unemployment is zero. Illegitimacy is zero. Divorce is rare and occurs only after the children's most formative years. Poverty is absent - indeed, none of the families is anywhere near the poverty level. Many are affluent and all have enough income to live in decent neighbourhoods with good schools and a low crime rate. If you have the good fortune to come from such a background, you will expect a bright future for your children. You will certainly have provided them with all the advantages society has to offer. But suppose we follow the children of these families into adulthood. How will they actually fare?
A few years ago the late Richard Herrnstein and I published a controversial book about IQ, The Bell Curve, in which we said that much would depend on IQ. On average, the bright children from such families will do well in life - and the dull children will do poorly. Unemployment, poverty and illegitimacy will be almost as great among the children from even these fortunate families as they are in society at large - not quite as great, because a positive family background does have some good effect, but almost, because IQ is such an important factor...

"More on the Bell Curve"
by Dr. Charles Murray and Daniel Seligman (1997)
"The topic of race and genes is like the topic of sex in Victorian England. The intellectual elites are horrified if anyone talks about it, but behind the scenes they are fascinated. I will say it more baldly than Dick and I did in the book: In their heart of hearts, intellectual elites, especially liberal ones, have two nasty secrets regarding IQ. First, they really believe that IQ is the be-all and end-all of human excellence and that someone with a low IQ is inferior. Second, they are already sure that the black - white IQ difference is predominantly genetic and that this is a calamity -- such a calamity indeed that it must not be spoken about, even to oneself.
The reality of a cognitive elite is becoming so obvious that I wonder if even critics of the book really doubt it. The relationship of low IQ to the underclass? Ditto. Welfare reform is helping the argument along, by the way, as journalistic accounts reveal how many welfare mothers are not just uneducated, but of conspicuously low intelligence. The intractability of IQ? Dick and I said that IQ was 40 to 80 per cent heritable"...

"Whatever Happened to Eugenics, Glayde Whitney's Review of Heredity and Humanity : Race, Eugenics and Modern Science" (Pr. Roger Pearson, Anthropology/Psychobiology, 1996)
Whatever happened to Eugenics ? How is it that the prevention of human suffering came to be considered as the greater evil ?
The second half of the book deals in fascinating depth with essentially current happenings, both in eugenical science [genetics], and in ideological countermoves to empirical science. On the one hand, DNA fingerprinting can now establish, from a drop of saliva or dried blood, the race of origin to a probability of error of less than one-in-a-hundred-million. Incredibly, at the same time popular media and scientific publications stridently proclaim that biological [genetic] races do not exist. We are now in critical times, a race is occurring around us between humanitarian applications of modern genetic science (eugenics, that is) and the suppression of knowledge by PeeCee ideologues. The media, by-and-large trained by egalitarians, know no better than to attack as "racist", "repellent", or "repugnant" almost any admission of information concerning behavior and genetic diversity among human races. Yet at the same time the human genome project in combination with a wide variety of research in the neurosciences [brain science] and behavioral medicine and genetics in general, is quickly taking us beyond the point where race differences can be obfuscated or denied. So ? It is ominous that there is a proliferation of 'hate crime' and 'hate speech' laws being considered or already in existence in various European countries, Australia, and Canada. While in the United States, under the umbrella of first amendment freedom-of-speech protection, academic tenure is under wide-spread attack and previously respectable academic publishers are censuring authors and censoring their book lists, even withdrawing from publication a title deemed "repellent" for including mention of race differences.
Whatever happened to eugenics ?...

"Eugenics: Economics for the Long Run"
by Pr. E.M.Miller (Department of Economics and Finance of University of New Orleans,1997)
"There is sufficient knowledge now about the importance of genetic factors to indicate that, over time, income could be raised by eugenics. Such a program is not politically feasible now, but someday it may be, especially when overpopulation makes it necessary to restrict births. Eugenics may then become popular among the ruling classes because it provides a rationale for exempting them from the restrictions that would otherwise apply"...

"Reproduction Technology for a New Eugenics"
by Pr. Glayde Whitney (Department of Psychology at Florida State University, paper for The Galton Institute, Londres,1999)
Although we know so little at the present time, our store of genetic knowledge and reproductive technology is vastly greater than at any time in the past. And our rate of acquisition of new knowledge and techniques is accelerating. If we can just educate the people, defeat the socialist ideologues, and keep the politician's hands off, then, with the new reproductive technology contributing to the Galtonian Revolution, a brave, and wonderful, new world awaits us in the new millennium"...

"Eugenics : A Reassessment (embryo selection and cloning)"
by Pr.Richard Lynn (Emeritus Professor of Psychology at the University of Ulster, 2001)
"Lynn argues that the condemnation of eugenics in the second half of the 20th century went too far and offers a reassessment. The eugenic objectives of eliminating genetic diseases, increasing intelligence, and reducing personality disorders he argues, remain desirable and are achievable by human biotechnology. In this four-part analysis, Lynn begins with an account of the foundation of eugenics by Francis Galton and the rise and fall of eugenics in the twentieth century. He then sets out historical formulations on this issue and discusses in detail desirability of the new eugenics of human biotechnology. After examining the classic approach of attempting to implement eugenics by altering reproduction, Lynn concludes that the policies of classical eugenics are not politically feasible in democratic societies. The new eugenics of human biotechnology--prenatal diagnosis of embryos with genetic diseases, embryo selection, and cloning--may be more likely than classic eugenics to evolve spontaneously in western democracies. Lynn looks at the ethical issues of human biotechnologies and how they may be used by authoritarian states to promote state power. He predicts how eugenic policies and dysgenic processes are likely to affect geopolitics and the balance of power in the 21st century. Lynn offers a provocative analysis that will be of particular interest to psychologists, sociologists, demographers, and biologists concerned with issues of population change and intelligence"...

"Darwinism, Dominance & Democracy : The Biological Bases of Authoritarianism" by Albert Somit, Steven A.Peterson (1997)
Somit and Peterson seek to explain two apparently contradictory yet well-established political phenomena: First, throughout human history, the vast majority of political societies have been authoritarian. Second, notwithstanding this pattern, from time to time, democracies do emerge and some even have considerable stability. A neo-Darwinian approach can help make sense of these observations. Humans--social primates--have an inborn bias toward authoritarian life, based on their tendency to engage in dominance behavior and the formation of dominance hierarchies. Reinforcing this bias is an impulse toward obedience. These factors are associated with the propensity of humans to accept authoritarian systems.Nonetheless, the authors argue, conditions of material abundance combined with another human characteristic--indoctrinability--can foster the emergence and maintenance of democracies. Somit and Peterson assert that an understanding of "human nature" from an evolutionary perspective can help to explain how and why political systems have developed. They conclude by pointing to policy implications that might enhance the odds of formation and continuation of democratic forms of government. Students and scholars of political science and philosophy, sociology, and human biology will find this an intriguing study...

World Transhumanist Association
by Nick Bostrom, Departement de Philosophie, de logique et de méthodologie scientifique, Ecole d'Economie de Londres,
"The World Transhumanist Association is an international nonprofit membership organization which advocates the ethical use of technology to expand human capacities. We support the development of and access to new technologies that enable everyone to enjoy better minds, better bodies and better lives. In other words, we want people to be better than well"...

The Ubermensch, the Superman and the Posthuman

Dr. Klaus-Gerd Giesen
"In the most vicious yet thorough attack against transhumanism to date, Dr. Klaus-Gerd Giesen, a professor of political sciences at the University of Leipzig in Germany, wrote, among other things, in Transhumanism and Human Genetics (a widely-cited polemical article written in French for the Genetics Observatory, a project of the Centre for Bioethics of the Clinical Research Institute of Montreal):
"Encasing the figure of the nietzchean superman - which, by the way, is a constant reference for transhumanists in their writings or mailing lists - in an absurd biological materialism that would no doubt amuse the German philosopher, transhumanists push their nihilism to the point of speculating about the members of the privileged stratum of society eventually enhancing themselves and their offspring to a point where the human species, for many practical purposes, splits into two or more species that have little in common except a shared evolutionary history"...

à lire
"Stérilisation et eugénisme en Caroline du Nord : 1929-1974"
(7000 personnes dont 2000 mineurs ont été stérilisées dans le cadre d'un programme eugénique) by Les Pénélopes-2003,
En Caroline du Nord, de 1929 à 1974, 7 600 personnes dont 2 000 mineurs ont été stérilisées dans le cadre d'un programme eugénique. Le Winston Salem Journal a eu accès à des documents d'état secrets et révèle ainsi que la Caroline du Nord se situe au 3ème rang pour le nombre de victimes parmi les 33 états ayant autorisé de telles pratiques. Alors que beaucoup d'états abandonnaient ce programme après 1945, la Caroline du Nord l'a poursuivi et l'a scandaleusement orienté : à la fin des années 60, 99% des victimes sont des femmes et 60% sont noires. Cette loi eugénique autorisait la stérilisation pour trois raisons : épilepsie, maladie et handicap mental mais elles étaient aussi pratiquées contre les homosexuels. Des associations demandent des excuses fédérales, des auditions ainsi que indemnités...

"Abrogation en 1996 des lois pour l'eugénisme national de 1940, 1948, 1953 et pour l'internement / stérilisation des lépreux au Japon" et "Arrêt du tribunal de Kumamoto du 11 mai 2001 pour l'indemnisation de 13 anciens lépreux"
(doc, pdf)
étude de Philippe Chemouilli

"Les épidémies troubles de l'ordre social et protection de la société des sujets malades"
(doc, pdf)
(théorie politique de l'hygiène et de la police au Japon sous l'empereur Meiji,1868-1912) in "Le Cholera et la naissance de la santé publique dans le Japon de Meiji" P.Chemouilli, 2004

L’Avenir de la nature humaine. Vers un eugénisme libéral ?
by Jürgen Habermas (Gallimard, 2002) et étude de Francis Foreaux,
L’"eugénisme libéral" ("c’est ainsi que je nomme une pratique qui laisse à l’appréciation des parents la possibilité d’intervenir sur des cellules germinales fécondées", p. 117) doit être considéré en gardant toujours à l’esprit la dernière remarque que nous venons de faire. La possibilité désormais offerte, ou sur le point de l’être, aux parents d’agir sur le génome de leur futur enfant, non seulement pour éviter les effets d’une maladie héréditairement lourde (eugénisme négatif), mais aussi en vue d’une amélioration de certaines qualités physiques ou mentales, ou de dispositions considérées comme des qualités, dans le sens de préférences individuelles (eugénisme positif), semble aller de pair avec le devenir démocratique de notre société et l’individualisme qui lui est lié. S’y opposer, objectent les partisans de l’eugénisme libéral, n’est-ce pas porter atteinte au principe constitutionnel de tolérance et revenir aux vieux démons de l’étatisme? A ne considérer que ce seul point vue, la question que pose l’eugénisme libéral n’est pas fondamentalement différente de celle du choix de l’éducation que les parents donnent à leurs enfants. Les parents ne sont-ils pas libres de donner à leurs enfants, avant leur naissance, telle ou telle qualité comme ils le sont de leur offrir, après leur naissance, telle ou telle éducation ?
C’est dans ce contexte que J. Habermas, qui insiste à plusieurs reprises sur la difficulté de distinguer un eugénisme négatif d’un eugénisme positif, demande s’il n’est pas devenu nécessaire de limiter la recherche biologique et s’il n’est pas moralement possible de justifier une telle limitation, ce qui suppose une intervention du législateur. Sa réponse est claire. Il est nécessaire de le faire avant qu’on soit pris par et dans la logique systémique du fait accompli et qu’il soit trop tard pour revenir en arrière. Mais, et c’est là qu’il donne toute la mesure de l’ampleur et de la pertinence de sa réflexion, il s’efforce de démontrer qu’il est possible de justifier moralement cette limitation, d’une manière qui soit acceptable par tous, quel que choix le choix personnel de vie éthique fait par chacun"...

Habermas entre démocratie et génétique
(à propos de "l'Avenir de la nature humaine. Vers un eugénisme Libéral ?" ) entretient du Journal Le Monde (A.Laignel-Lavastine) avec Jürgen Habermas (20.12.2002), texte traduit par le philosophe Rainer Rochiltz (Habermas l'usage public de la raison, PUF)

1- "La préoccupation pour la bioéthique est récente dans votre œuvre : on n'en trouve guère de trace avant 1998. comment s'articule-t-elle avec votre réflexion sur la démocratie ?
C'est vrai, je ne me suis pas particulièrement intéressé aux questions d'éthique appliquée. Dans ce domaine, les philosophes mènent souvent un travail d'experts et sont du même coup obligés de s'adapter à des formes bureaucratiques d'organisation et de décision. Une pensée spontanée, et qui ne se laisse pas circonscrire, se plie difficilement à ces contraintes. Il faut toujours aspirer à la clarté analytique et au professionnalisme. Mais une chose est, pour un philosophe, de faire usage de son savoir spécialisé dans le cadre de commissions, une autre de prendre parti dans l'espace public, en tant qu'intellectuel, à propos de questions politiques.
Les questions de bioéthique que soulèvent les progrès de la médecine de procréation attirent depuis longtemps l'attention du public. En revanche, ce n'est que depuis 1998 que la recherche sur les cellules-souches prélevées sur des embryons humains ou sur des tissus de fœtus avortés a réellement pris son essor. Le déchiffrement du génome a ensuite nourri l'espoir de voir les thérapies géniques se développer à plus grande échelle et il a aussi suscité l'intérêt économique pour l'exploitation de ces technologies. Quant au débat public sur les progrès de la neurobiologie et les perspectives de manipulation des fonctions cérébrales, il n'est guère plus ancien. Il s'agit assurément, dans tous ces cas, de spéculations, et nul ne peut dire avec certitude ce qui relève de l'imagination ou de la prédiction. Compte tenu du rythme de ces développements, nous avons cependant intérêt à anticiper certaines éventualités en formulant des hypothèses.
Je m'intéresse avant tout à la question suivante : comment notre vision de nous-mêmes en tant que personnes, menant leur propre vie et ayant à rendre compte de leurs actes, se transformera-t-elle si nous en venons, un jour, à nous habituer à manipuler nos dispositions génétiques ou nos fonctions cérébrales ?...

2- Pourquoi au juste la manipulation du génome humain devrait-elle nous amener à ne plus nous considérer comme les auteurs responsables de notre propre vie, voire porter atteinte au respect mutuel que se portent les personnes entre elles ?
Je dois insister d'emblée sur le fait que je ne suis pas biologiste, et j'ignore si le scénario d'un "shopping au supermarché génétique", qui s'esquisse aujourd'hui, sera jamais réalité. On peut espérer que l'idée de "bébés design" restera de l'ordre de la spéculation pure et simple. Cela dit, l'affaire est trop sérieuse pour ne pas envisager à titre d'hypothèse que nous pourrions être, un de ces jours, en présence d'un eugénisme positif dépassant la simple thérapie préventive. Du même coup, les parents auraient la possibilité et le droit d'agir, avant la naissance de leurs enfants (si tant est qu'ils en aient), sur certaines de leurs caractéristiques, dispositions ou aptitudes monogénétiques. Dans un tel cas, je prévois la possibilité que l'adolescent, venant à prendre connaissance de la manipulation prénatale dont il aurait fait l'objet, se sentira limité dans sa liberté éthique.
L'adolescent pourra alors demander des comptes à des parents, responsables de son profil ou design génétique. Il pourra par exemple leur reprocher de l'avoir doté d'un talent mathématique et non d'aptitudes athlétiques ou musicales qui auraient été plus utiles à la carrière d'athlète ou de pianiste dont il rêve. Pourra-t-il encore se comprendre comme l'unique auteur de sa propre biographie lorsqu'il viendra à connaître les intentions qui ont guidé dans leur choix les coauteurs de son profil génétique ? Certes, les parents souhaitent le meilleur pour leurs enfants. Mais ils ne peuvent savoir quelle dot sera "la meilleure" dans le contexte imprévisible d'une biographie qui n'est pas la leur.
Il me semble que la seule façon d'exclure le risque d'un conditionnement eugénique abusif est de faire en sorte que toute intervention visant à modifier des caractéristiques génétiques obéisse à un point de vue "clinique" : celui que l'on adopte vis-à-vis d'une deuxième personne dont on est en droit de supposer qu'elle puisse y consentir. Or une telle situation n'est donnée que dans le cas de maladies héréditaires entraînant une affection indubitablement extrême, et dont le pronostic a été établi avec certitude. Nous ne pouvons partir de l'idée d'un consensus large que pour le refus des plus grands maux, car, en règle générale, nos orientations axiologiques sont largement divergentes. Nous sommes d'ailleurs particulièrement fiers de ce pluralisme"...

La responsabilité du fait de la mission de soins des établissements publics et privés de santé, Le risque d'eugénisme combattu par le législateur
...thèse de Cyril CLÉMENT, 2001.
Le droit de la responsabilité en général, de la responsabilité hospitalière en particulier est une source intarissable pour la recherche scientifique. Il reste que pendant longtemps, pour intéressantes qu’elles soient, ces études avaient trait séparément soit à la responsabilité de l’hôpital public, soit à la responsabilité de la clinique privée. Il fallut attendre la contribution du Professeur Pierre Sandevoir (« Unité et diversité du contentieux administratif et du contentieux judiciaire dans le droit de la responsabilité hospitalière ») dans les « Mélanges Drago » parus au cours de l’année 1996, pour lire une étude transversale.
Mais jusqu’au travail de la thèse de Cyril CLÉMENT, aucune œuvre majeure n’avait porté sur la responsabilité du fait de la mission de soins des établissements de santé publics et privés. C’est dire que ce travail de thèse est bien venu à une époque où les droits du patient montent en flèche. Il est intéressant de savoir comment les juges civils et administratifs accordent réparation, et plus encore d’observer si ces jurisprudences convergent ou non. Sans doute existe-t-il une dynamique favorable aux patients, permettant ainsi d’expliquer une convergence entre les deux jurisprudences, qui ne cesse de se confirmer encore très récemment dans des domaines aussi variés que les infections nosocomiales et l’obligation d’information médicale. Certainement, les décisions des juges administratif et civil font référence de plus en plus à l’obligation de résultat soit explicitement, soit implicitement. On assiste en d’autres termes, à un durcissement des obligations à l’égard des établissements de santé et des médecins. Pour autant, cette convergence n’est pas totale : seul le juge administratif fait application de la responsabilité sans faute. C’est la responsabilité pour risque (aléa) médical. Cette différence de solution entre les deux ordres de juridiction n’est pas opportune ; d’autant moins que le juge civil ne répare pas avec la même ardeur le risque médical que son homologue administratif. Une évolution est évidemment nécessaire ; reste à savoir comment...
Cyril CLÉMENT est avocat au barreau de Paris après avoir été attaché temporaire d’enseignement et de recherches à l’université Paris 8 (1996-1998). Maître de conférences en droit public, il est l’auteur d’une thèse sur la responsabilité médicale et de nombreux ouvrages et articles de droit public et hospitalier.

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